These links to BetterBee have some good information about hive details.
Langstroth hives are nice, rectangular boxes, and so folks have started making them in various widths and depths. The length is always the same – the length of a standard frame.
See BetterBee for more details.
The lower box(es) in your hive is where the queen spends her time, and where the brood will be found. You may choose to make sure she stays down there, not venturing into your honey supers, by using a queen excluder – a wire grid device that allows worker bees to pass through, but not the larger queen.
Once all the flowers start blooming in spring, the bees will rapidly start storing honey. You will need to provide them additional room by stacking “honey supers” onto the hive. These are typically medium-sized bodies and frames.
Hives come in either 8 frame or 10 frame widths. You need to commit to a size when you order your first hive body, as you will need to stack additional hive bodies on top of your first body. You cannot stack an 8 frame body on top of a 10 frame body.
10 frame bodies are more standard, but they are also heavier. You may need to lift an entire body, so an 8 frame body will be easier on your back.
“Deeps”, “mediums”, and “shallows”. See the BetterBee notes. Traditionally beekeepers tended to use “deeps” for the bottom brood bodies, and “mediums” for the honey “supers”.
- Deeps – used for brood chambers, 9-5/8″ tall.
- Mediums – can be used for brood and honey supers – 6-5/8″ tall.
- Shallows – not commonly used, but a good option to minimize weight – 5-3/8″ tall.
Each hive body will be filled with frames.
Important note: DO NOT leave out frames – your bees will very quickly fill that void with random comb. It will be a mess and very disruptive to the hive to clean up.
The easiest way to get started is assembled, pre-waxed frames, such as: deep or medium.
There are two types of covers:
- Telescoping – see BetterBee. These are always used in conjunction with an inner cover. The metal-covered covers are preferable – very durable and prevent warping in the winter rains.
- Migratory – simpler and cheaper, but probably not best in the winter – tend to warp and possibly leak.
The bottom board, as its name implies, is at the bottom of the hive.
Solid, simple bottom boards are a good option to start with… KISS right? Some folks like screened bottom boards. If in doubt, go with a simple solid bottom board.
The quickest and easiest way to get started is to purchase fully assembled hives and frames. If you’re particularly handy or wish to save a few bucks, you can consider purchasing unassembled hives. If assembling your hive, it helps to have some 90-degree corner clamps.
- Unless you get a pre-painted hive, leave time in your schedule to give your hive body a coat of paint. Choose whatever color you wish. Lighter colors are preferable – dark colors could get very hot in the summer.
- Have a water source for the bees. You don’t want them going across the street to your neighbor’s kiddie pool. Just like any animal, your bees need water.
- BEFORE you get your bees, have your hive body installed on your hive stands.
Use a hive stand!
- You do not want your bottom board resting on the ground. Pests and ants will have easy access, and your bottom board will quickly deteriorate.
- For the height of the hive stand, think about your back. If you have a hive stand about 16″ tall, you won’t be stooping over to work on your hives.
- Hive bodies, particularly honey supers, are heavy. You may want to lift an entire super at times. Consider the height, and think about using 8 frame bodies rather than 10 frame.
- The hive stand and hive should be level.
- The ideal location gets morning sun, with the front of the hive facing southeast or south.
- See here for more information.
Before Working On Your Hives
- Make sure you are very comfortable with your PPE, your bee suit. Do some trials. After putting it on, have a partner or friend verify there are no gaps or openings. There is nothing worse than noticing a bee on the inside of your veil when you are halfway through working on your hives.
- Seal your pants legs.
- Your bee suit will probably have elastic loops at the arm cuffs – you can loop these over some of your fingers to make sure the sleeves stay down, covering your tender flesh, as you work.
- Heavier nitrile gloves work well, like these. Longer sleeve disposable nitrile gloves may also be found at Grainger.